C12H22O11 definition


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4 definitions found

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

  lactose \lac"tose`\ (l[a^]k"t[=o]s`), n.
     1. (Physiol. Chem.) The main sugar present in milk, called
        also {sugar of milk} or {milk sugar}. When isolated pure
        it is obtained crystalline; it is separable from the whey
        by evaporation and crystallization. It is a disaccharide
        with the formula {C12H22O11}, being chemically

        4-([beta]-D-galactosido)-D-glucose. It has a slightly
        sweet taste, is dextrorotary, and is much less soluble in
        water than either cane sugar or glucose. Formerly called
        {lactin}. When hydrolyzed it yields glucose and galactose.
        In cells it may be hydrolyzed by the enzyme
        [1913 Webster +PJC]
     2. (Chem.) See {Galactose}.
        [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

  Maltose \Malt"ose`\ (m[add]lt"[=o]s`), n. [From {Malt}.]
     A crystalline disaccharide ({C12H22O11}) formed from starch
     by the action of diastase of malt, and the amylolytic ferment
     of saliva and pancreatic juice; called also {maltobiose} and
     {malt sugar}. Chemically it is
     4-O-[alpha]-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose. It rotates the plane
     of polarized light further to the right than does dextrose
     and possesses a lower cupric oxide reducing power.
     [1913 Webster +PJC]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

  Sugar \Sug"ar\, n. [OE. sugre, F. sucre (cf. It. zucchero, Sp.
     az['u]car), fr. Ar. sukkar, assukkar, fr. Skr. [,c]arkar[=a]
     sugar, gravel; cf. Per. shakar. Cf. {Saccharine}, {Sucrose}.]
     1. A sweet white (or brownish yellow) crystalline substance,
        of a sandy or granular consistency, obtained by
        crystallizing the evaporated juice of certain plants, as
        the sugar cane, sorghum, beet root, sugar maple, etc. It
        is used for seasoning and preserving many kinds of food
        and drink. Ordinary sugar is essentially sucrose. See the
        Note below.
        [1913 Webster]
     Note: The term sugar includes several commercial grades, as
           the white or refined, granulated, loaf or lump, and the
           raw brown or muscovado. In a more general sense, it
           includes several distinct chemical compounds, as the
           glucoses, or grape sugars (including glucose proper,
           dextrose, and levulose), and the sucroses, or true
           sugars (as cane sugar). All sugars are carbohydrates.
           See {Carbohydrate}. The glucoses, or grape sugars, are
           ketone alcohols of the formula {C6H12O6}, and they turn
           the plane of polarization to the right or the left.
           They are produced from the amyloses and sucroses, as by
           the action of heat and acids of ferments, and are
           themselves decomposed by fermentation into alcohol and
           carbon dioxide. The only sugar (called acrose) as yet
           produced artificially belongs to this class. The
           sucroses, or cane sugars, are doubled glucose
           anhydrides of the formula {C12H22O11}. They are usually
           not fermentable as such (cf. {Sucrose}), and they act
           on polarized light.
           [1913 Webster]
     2. By extension, anything resembling sugar in taste or
        appearance; as, sugar of lead (lead acetate), a poisonous
        white crystalline substance having a sweet taste.
        [1913 Webster]
     3. Compliment or flattery used to disguise or render
        acceptable something obnoxious; honeyed or soothing words.
        [1913 Webster]
     {Acorn sugar}. See {Quercite}.
     {Cane sugar}, sugar made from the sugar cane; sucrose, or an
        isomeric sugar. See {Sucrose}.
     {Diabetes sugar}, or {Diabetic sugar} (Med. Chem.), a variety
        of sugar (grape sugar or dextrose) excreted in the urine
        in diabetes mellitus; -- the presence of such a sugar in
        the urine is used to diagnose the illness.
     {Fruit sugar}. See under {Fruit}, and {Fructose}.
     {Grape sugar}, a sirupy or white crystalline sugar (dextrose
        or glucose) found as a characteristic ingredient of ripe
        grapes, and also produced from many other sources. See
        {Dextrose}, and {Glucose}.
     {Invert sugar}. See under {Invert}.
     {Malt sugar}, a variety of sugar isomeric with sucrose, found
        in malt. See {Maltose}.
     {Manna sugar}, a substance found in manna, resembling, but
        distinct from, the sugars. See {Mannite}.
     {Milk sugar}, a variety of sugar characteristic of fresh
        milk, and isomeric with sucrose. See {Lactose}.
     {Muscle sugar}, a sweet white crystalline substance isomeric
        with, and formerly regarded to, the glucoses. It is found
        in the tissue of muscle, the heart, liver, etc. Called
        also {heart sugar}. See {Inosite}.
     {Pine sugar}. See {Pinite}.
     {Starch sugar} (Com. Chem.), a variety of dextrose made by
        the action of heat and acids on starch from corn,
        potatoes, etc.; -- called also {potato sugar}, {corn
        sugar}, and, inaccurately, {invert sugar}. See {Dextrose},
        and {Glucose}.
     {Sugar barek}, one who refines sugar.
     {Sugar beet} (Bot.), a variety of beet ({Beta vulgaris}) with
        very large white roots, extensively grown, esp. in Europe,
        for the sugar obtained from them.
     {Sugar berry} (Bot.), the hackberry.
     {Sugar bird} (Zool.), any one of several species of small
        South American singing birds of the genera {Coereba},
        {Dacnis}, and allied genera belonging to the family
        {Coerebidae}. They are allied to the honey eaters.
     {Sugar bush}. See {Sugar orchard}.
     {Sugar camp}, a place in or near a sugar orchard, where maple
        sugar is made.
     {Sugar candian}, sugar candy. [Obs.]
     {Sugar candy}, sugar clarified and concreted or crystallized;
        candy made from sugar.
     {Sugar cane} (Bot.), a tall perennial grass ({Saccharum
        officinarium}), with thick short-jointed stems. It has
        been cultivated for ages as the principal source of sugar.
     {Sugar loaf}.
        (a) A loaf or mass of refined sugar, usually in the form
            of a truncated cone.
        (b) A hat shaped like a sugar loaf.
            [1913 Webster]
                  Why, do not or know you, grannam, and that sugar
                  loaf?                             --J. Webster.
            [1913 Webster]
     {Sugar maple} (Bot.), the rock maple ({Acer saccharinum}).
        See {Maple}.
     {Sugar mill}, a machine for pressing out the juice of the
        sugar cane, usually consisting of three or more rollers,
        between which the cane is passed.
     {Sugar mite}. (Zool.)
        (a) A small mite ({Tyroglyphus sacchari}), often found in
            great numbers in unrefined sugar.
        (b) The lepisma.
     {Sugar of lead}. See {Sugar}, 2, above.
     {Sugar of milk}. See under {Milk}.
     {Sugar orchard}, a collection of maple trees selected and
        preserved for purpose of obtaining sugar from them; --
        called also, sometimes, {sugar bush}. [U.S.] --Bartlett.
     {Sugar pine} (Bot.), an immense coniferous tree ({Pinus
        Lambertiana}) of California and Oregon, furnishing a soft
        and easily worked timber. The resinous exudation from the
        stumps, etc., has a sweetish taste, and has been used as a
        substitute for sugar.
     {Sugar squirrel} (Zool.), an Australian flying phalanger
        ({Belideus sciureus}), having a long bushy tail and a
        large parachute. It resembles a flying squirrel. See
        Illust. under {Phlanger}.
     {Sugar tongs}, small tongs, as of silver, used at table for
        taking lumps of sugar from a sugar bowl.
     {Sugar tree}. (Bot.) See {Sugar maple}, above.
        [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

  Sucrose \Su"crose`\, n. [F. sucre sugar. See {Sugar}.] (Chem.)
     A common variety of sugar found in the juices of many plants,
     as the sugar cane, sorghum, sugar maple, beet root, etc. It
     is extracted as a sweet, white crystalline substance which is
     valuable as a food product, and, being antiputrescent, is
     largely used in the preservation of fruit. Called also
     {saccharose}, {cane sugar}, etc. At one time the term was
     used by extension, for any one of the class of isomeric
     substances (as lactose, maltose, etc.) of which sucrose
     proper is the type; however this usage is now archaic.
     [1913 Webster +PJC]
     Note: Sucrose proper is a dextrorotatory carbohydrate,
           {C12H22O11}. It does not reduce Fehling's solution, and
           though not directly fermentable, yet on standing with
           yeast it is changed by the diastase present to invert
           sugar (dextrose and levulose), which then breaks down
           to alcohol and carbon dioxide. It is also decomposed to
           invert sugar by heating with acids, whence it is also
           called a {disaccharate}. Sucrose possesses at once the
           properties of an alcohol and a ketone, and also forms
           compounds (called sucrates) analogous to salts. Cf.
           [1913 Webster]

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